Target Date Funds are multi-asset funds whose risk profile changes over time, becoming less risky on approach to, and after the target date in the fund’s name.
Investors, or their advisers, can use target date funds as an investment strategy that is purpose-built for retirement. By selecting a fund whose target date matches a planned retirement year, investors get access to an accumulation-oriented investment strategy prior to the target date, and a decumulation-oriented strategy after the target date. This makes target date funds a convenient “all-in one” fund which explains why they are often used as default funds within pension schemes, including NEST.
Why a cohort-based approach makes sense
It’s common sense that the risk capacity for an investor’s exposure to market risk is different at different stages of life and wealth levels.
For younger investors, where wealth levels are typically lower and time horizons are longer, there is a higher capacity for loss, hence a higher exposure to higher risk-return assets makes sense.
For older investors, where wealth levels are typically higher and time horizons are shorter, there is a lower capacity for loss, hence a lower exposure to higher risk-return assets makes sense.
If customers can be segmented by cohorts, it makes sense that investment strategy can be too.
What is the performance experience for different cohorts this year (time-weighted)?
The 2015-20 Target Date Fund from Architas experienced a moderate maximum monthly drawdown of -4.71% in March 2020. By comparison, the 2020 Target Date Fund from Vanguard experienced a -6.66% drawdown. This contrasts with -9.37% for the Elston 60/40 GBP Index, -10.94% for MSCI World, and -13.81% for the FTSE 100, all in GBP terms.
In this respect, investors who were in default decumulation strategies, with lower capacity for loss, saw better mitigation of downside risk relative to a traditional 60/40 “balanced” mandate.
Fig.1. YTD performance of UK Target Date Funds (GBP terms) for those retiring 2015-20.
Source: Elston research, Bloomberg data
For investors in accumulation with target retirement date in the future, a comparison of the 2050 Target Date Funds shows Vanguard outperforming Architas – presumably owing to a more aggressive equity allocation in its glidepath. Both ranges of TDFs clearly have a low domestic equity bias, given their outperformance of the FTSE 100.
Fig.2. YTD performance of UK Target Date Funds (GBP terms) for those retiring 2046-50
Source: Elston research, Bloomberg data
How Target Date Funds could fit in with policy evolution
Ensuring there is some form of in-built lifestyling is a longstanding feature of consumer protections for pensions investment since Stakeholder times. Using behavioural finance in proposition design can provide a degree of consumer protection from poor outcomes for less confident, less engaged investors. That’s why a growing number of regulatory interventions incorporate some form of built-in lifestyling. Whilst this is complex to achieve from an administrative perspective, the fact that Target Date Funds deliver lifestyling within the multi-asset fund structure makes them a useful product type for default investment strategies.
Fig.3. Key behavioural aspects and price anchors of policy interventions
In this series of articles, I look at some of the key topics explored in my book “How to Invest With Exchange Traded Funds” that also underpin the portfolio design work Elston does for discretionary managers and financial advisers.
Aligning investment strategy with objectives
Investing can be defined as putting capital at risk of gain or loss to earn a return in excess of what can be received from a risk-free asset such as cash or a government bond over the medium-to long-term.
There can be any number of motives for investing: it could be to fund a future retirement via a SIPP, or to fund future university fees via a JISA.
Online tools and calculators can help estimate how much is required to invest today to fund goals in the future.
Investors can target a particular return, but learn to understand that the higher the required return, the higher the required level of portfolio risk. Risk and return are the “ying and yang” of investment. You can’t get one without the other.
Total return can be broken down into income yield (dividends from equities and interest from bonds) and capital growth. In the UK, income and gains are taxed at different rates. If investing within a tax-efficient account, like a SIPP or an ISA, then income and gains are tax-free. If investing outside a tax-efficient account, investors must also then consider in their objectives how they want to receive total return – with a bias towards income or with a bias towards growth.
Given the majority of DIY investors are able to make use of tax-efficient accounts, there is less need to consider income or growth, with many investors opting to focus on Total Returns and to use funds that offer “Accumulating” units that reinvest income, and reflect a fund’s total return.
How then to build a portfolio to deliver an appropriate level of risk-return?
What matters most when investing?
For the purposes of these articles, I assume that readers need no reminder of the basic checklist of investing: to start early, to maximise allowances, keep topping up regularly, and to keep costs down. Then comes the key decision – what to invest in.
The main driver of portfolio risk and return is not which stocks or equity funds are within a portfolio, but what the proportion is between higher risk-return assets such as equities, and lower risk-return assets such as shorter duration bonds.
Put simply, whether to invest 20%, 60% or 100% of a portfolio in equities, will have a greater impact on overall portfolio returns, than the selection of shares or funds within that equity allocation.
For example, when making spaghetti Bolognese, the ratio between spaghetti and Bolognese impacts the “outcome” of the overall meal, more than how finely chopped the onions are within the Bolognese recipe.
While this may seem obvious, it gets lost in all the noise and news that focuses on hot stocks, star managers and performance rankings.
For those that want to back up common sense with academic theory, the academic articles most referenced that explore this topic are Brinson Hood & Beebower (1986), Ibboton & Kaplan (2000), and Ibbotson, Xiong, Idzorek & Cheng (2010), all referenced and summarised in my book.
Building a multi-asset portfolio to an optimised asset allocation to align to a particular risk-return objectives sounds like hard work and it is. That’s why multi-asset funds exist.
The rise of multi-asset funds
As investing becomes more accessible to more people, there is less interest in the detail of how investments work and more interest in portfolios that get people from A to B, for a given level of risk-return. After all, there are fewer people who are interested in the detail of how engines work than there are who are interested in how a car looks, how it drives and what they need it for.
There is nothing new about multi-asset funds, indeed one could argue that the earliest investment trust Foreign & Colonial Investment Trust, founded in 1868, invested in both equities and bonds "to give the investor of moderate means the same advantages as the large capitalists in diminishing the risk by spreading the investment over a number of stocks”. In the unit trust world, managed balanced funds have been around for decades. I would define a multi-asset fund as a strategy that invests across a diversified range of asset classes to achieve a particular asset allocation and/or risk-return objective.
They offer a ready-made “portfolio within a fund” thereby enabling a managed portfolio service for the investor from a minimum regular investment of £25 per month. . In this respect, multi-asset funds help democratise investing, and make the hardest part of the investor’s checklist – how to construct and manage a diversified portfolio. The different types of multi-asset fund available is a topic in itself.
The ability for investors to select a multi-asset fund for a given level or risk-return characteristics for a given time frame is one of the most straightforward ways to implement a strategy once that has been aligned to a given set of objectives.
Multi-Asset Fund or ETF Portfolio?
The main advantage of a ready-made multi-asset fund is convenience. Asset allocation, and portfolio construction decisions are made by the fund provider.
The main advantages of an ETF Portfolio are timeliness, cost and flexible. ETF Portfolios are timely. You can adjust positions the same day without 4-5 day dealing cycles associated with funds – an important feature in volatile times. ETF portfolios are good value. You can construct a multi-asset ETF portfolio for a lower cost than even the cheapest multi-asset fund. ETF Portfolio are flexible – you can tilt a core strategy to reflect your views on a particular region (e.g. US or Emerging Markets), sector (e.g. healthcare or technology), theme (e.g. sustainability or demographics), or factor (e.g. momentum or value), to reflect your views based on your research.
Setting the right objectives to meet a target financial outcome, such as funding future retirement, university fees, or creating a rainy day fund is the primary consideration when making an investment plan.
Getting the asset allocation right – choosing a risk profile – in a way best suited to deliver that plan is the second most important decision.
Finding a straight forward to deliver that risk-return profile, by building your own ETF portfolio or using a ready-made multi-asset index fund, is the final most important step.
All the while, it makes sense to stick to the investing checklist: to start early, keep topping up, and keep costs down.
Source: FTSE Russell
Evaluating DC pension scheme performance should be done on a cohort-by-cohort basis.
The standard FTSE UK DC Benchmark Indices provide a helpful reference index for a simple equity/bond allocation.
But DC schemes could consider creating an independently calculated custom benchmark to match their "glidepath".
FTSE UK DC Benchmark Index Performance 1q18 performance:
+0.1% 2015 Retirees, -1.5% 2025 Retirees, -3.8% 2035 Retirees, -4.4% 2045 Retirees.
Annualised 3 year performance to end March 2018:
+7.7% 2015 Retirees, +8.8% 2025 Retirees, +10.6% 2035 Retirees, +10.9% 2045 Retirees
Learn about FTSE UK DC Indices
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